Astaxanthin and Diabetes Research Links as of Jan 2022

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  1. Samantha Hurrle, Walter H. Hsu The etiology of oxidative stress in insulin resistance 2017 Biomedical Journal Volume 40, Issue 5, October 2017, Pages 257-262
  2. Antonio Ceriello and Enrico Motz Is Oxidative Stress the Pathogenic Mechanism Underlying Insulin Resistance, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease? The Common Soil Hypothesis Revisited Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular BiologyVolume 24, Issue 5, 1 May 2004; Pages 816-823
  3. Zhang, X.; Hou, Y.; Li, J.; Wang, J. The Role of Astaxanthin on Chronic Diseases. Crystals 2021, 11, 505. https://doi.org/10.3390/ cryst11050505 Astaxanthin as an antioxidant is a potential drug for the treatment of diabetes and has been reported in many studies
  4. Mashhadi, N.S.; Zakerkish, M.; Mohammadiasl, J.; Zarei, M.; Mohammadshahi, M.; Haghighizadeh, M.H. Astaxanthin improves glucose metabolism and reduces blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 2018, 27, 341–346. 85.
  5. Feng,W.;Wang, Y.; Guo, N.; Huang, P.; Mi, Y. Effects of Astaxanthin on Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in a Mouse Model of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Dose-Response 2020, 18, 1559325820926765.
  6. Fakhri, S.; Abbaszadeh, F.; Dargahi, L.; Jorjani, M. Astaxanthin: A mechanistic review on its biological activities and health benefits. Pharmacol. Res. 2018, 136, 1–20.
  7. Saeedi, P.; Petersohn, I.; Salpea, P.; Malanda, B.; Karuranga, S.; Unwin, N.; Colagiuri, S.; Guariguata, L.; Motala, A.A.; Ogurtsova, K.; et al. Global and regional diabetes prevalence estimates for 2019 and projections for 2030 and 2045: Results from the International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas, 9th edition. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2019, 157, 10.
  8. American Diabetes Association. 2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2019. Diabetes Care 2019, 42, S13–S28.
  9. Ryden, L.; Standl, E.; Bartnik, M.; Van den Berghe, G.; Betteridge, J.; De Boer, M.J.; Cosentino, F.; Jönsson, B.; Laakso, M.; Malmberg, K.; et al. Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases: Executive summary-The Task Force on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Eur. Heart J. 2007, 28, 88–136.
  10. Ford, E.S.; Zhao, G.X.; Li, C.Y. Pre-diabetes and the risk for cardiovascular disease A systematic review of the evidence. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2010, 55, 1310–1317.
  11. Kahn, S.E.; Cooper, M.E.; Del Prato, S. Pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes: Perspectives on the past, present, and future. Lancet 2014, 383, 1068–1083.
  12. Yang, W.; Lu, J.; Weng, J.; Jia, W.; Ji, L.; Xiao, J.; Shan, Z.; Liu, J.; Tian, H.; Ji, Q.; et al. Prevalence of diabetes among men and women in China. N. Engl. J. Med. 2010, 362, 1090–1101.
  13. Cai, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, M.; Wu, J.H.; Mai, L.; Li, J.; Yang, Y.; Hu, Y.; Huang, Y. Association between prediabetes and risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease: Updated meta-analysis. BMJ Br. Med. J. 2020, 370, 29.
  14. Wang-Sattler, R.; Yu, Z.; Herder, C.; Messias, A.C.; Floegel, A.; He, Y.; Heim, K.; Campillos, M.; Holzapfel, C.; Thorand, B.; et al. Novel biomarkers for pre-diabetes identified by metabolomics. Mol. Syst. Biol. 2012, 8, 11.
  15. Ghasemi-Dehnoo, M.; Amini-Khoei, H.; Lorigooini, Z.; Rafieian-Kopaei, M. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in diabetes mellitus. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med. 2020, 13, 431–438.
  16. Schieber, M.; Chandel, N.S. ROS function in redox signaling and oxidative stress. Curr. Biol. 2014, 24, R453–R462.
  17. Evans, J.; Goldfine, I.; Maddux, B.; Grodsky, G.M. Oxidative stress and stress-activated signaling pathways: A unifying hypothesis of type 2 diabetes. Endocr. Rev. 2002, 23, 599–622.
  18. Giacco, F.; Brownlee, M. Oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Circ. Res. 2010, 107, 1058–1070.
  19. Gorrini, C.; Harris, I.S.; Mak, T.W. Modulation of oxidative stress as an anticancer strategy. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2013, 12, 931–947.
  20. Xu, H.; Barnes, G.T.; Yang, Q.; Tan, G.; Yang, D.; Chou, C.J.; Sole, J.; Nichols, A.; Ross, J.S.; Tartaglia, L.A.; et al. Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. J. Clin. Investig. 2003, 112, 1821–1830.
  21. Medzhitov, R. Origin and physiological roles of inflammation. Nature 2008, 454, 428–435.
  22. Donath, M.Y.; Shoelson, S.E. Type 2 diabetes as an inflammatory disease. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2011, 11, 98–107.
  23. Kim, B.; Farruggia, C.; Ku, C.S.; Pham, T.X.; Yang, Y.; Bae, M.; Wegner, C.J.; Farrell, N.J.; Harness, E.; Park, Y.K.; et al. Astaxanthin inhibits inflammation and fibrosis in the liver and adipose tissue of mouse models of diet-induced obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2017, 43, 27–35.
  24. Bhuvaneswari, S.; Yogalakshmi, B.; Sreeja, S.; Anuradha, C.V. Astaxanthin reduces hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress and nuclear factor-kappa B-mediated inflammation in high fructose and high fat diet-fed mice. Cell Stress 2014, 19, 183–191.
  25. Britton, G. Carotenoid research: History and new perspectives for chemistry in biological systems. BBA Mol. Cell Biol. Lipids 2020, 1865, 158699.
  26. Yuan, J.P.; Chen, F. Isomerization of trans-astaxanthin to cis-Isomers in organic solvents. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999, 47, 3656–3660.
  27. Gulzar, S.; Benjakul, S. Characteristics and storage stability of nanoliposomes loaded with shrimp oil as affected by ultrasonication and microfluidization. Food Chem. 2020, 310, 125916.
  28. Chen, G.; Wang, B.; Han, D.; Sommerfeld, M.; Lu, Y.; Chen, F.; Hu, Q. Molecular mechanisms of the coordination between astaxanthin and fatty acid biosynthesis in Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae). Plant J. 2015, 81, 95–107.
  29. Grung, M.; D’Souza, F.M.L.; Borowitzka, M.; Liaaen-Jensen, S. Algal carotenoids 51. secondary carotenoids 2. Haematococcus pluvialis aplanospores as a source of (3S, 30S)-astaxanthin esters. J. Appl. Phycol. 1992, 4, 165–171.
  30. Lorenz, R.T.; Cysewski, G.R. Commercial potential for Haematococcus microalgae as a natural source of astaxanthin. Trends Biotechnol. 2000, 18, 160–167.
  31. Zhang, S.; Sun, X.; Liu, D. Preparation of (3R, 30 R)-astaxanthin monoester and (3R, 30 R)-astaxanthin from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana). Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2015, 240, 295–299.
  32. Capelli, B.; Bagchi, D.; Cysewski, G.R. Synthetic astaxanthin is significantly inferior to algal-based astaxanthin as an antioxidant and may not be suitable as a human nutraceutical supplement. Nutrafoods 2013, 12, 145–152.
  33. Camera, E.; Mastrofrancesco, A.; Fabbri, C.; Daubrawa, F.; Picardo, M.; Sies, H.; Stahl, W. Astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and -carotene differently affect UVA-induced oxidative damage and expression of oxidative stress-responsive enzymes. Exp. Dermatol. 2009, 18, 222–231.
  34. Iwamoto, T.; Hosoda, K.; Hirano, R.; Kurata, H.; Matsumoto, A.; Miki, W.; Kamiyama, M.; Itakura, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Kondo, K. Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation by astaxanthin. J. Atheroscier Thromb 2000, 7, 216–222.
  35. Shen, H.; Kuo, C.C.; Chou, J.; Delvolve, A.; Jackson, S.N.; Post, J.;Woods, A.S.; Hoffer, B.J.;Wang, Y.; Harvey, B.K. Astaxanthin reduces ischemic brain injury in adult rats. FASEB J. 2009, 23, 1958–1968.
  36. Kim, J.H.; Nam, S.W.; Kim, B.W.; Kim,W.J.; Choi, Y.H. Astaxanthin improves the proliferative capacity as well as the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential in neural stem cells. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2010, 48, 1741–1745.
  37. Park, J.S.; Chyun, J.H.; Kim, Y.K.; Line, L.L.; Chew, B.P. Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans. Nutr. Metab. 2010, 7, 18.
  38. Magenta, A.; Cencioni, C.; Fasanaro, P.; Zaccagnini, G.; Greco, S.; Sarra-Ferraris, G.; Antonini, A.; Martelli, F.; Capogrossi, M.C. miR-200c is upregulated by oxidative stress and induces endothelial cell apoptosis and senescence via ZEB1 inhibition. Cell Death Differ. 2011, 18, 1628–1639.
  39. Donato, A.J.; Morgan, R.G.; Walker, A.E.; Lesniewski, L.A. Cellular and molecular biology of aging endothelial cells. J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 2015, 89, 122–135. [CrossRef]
  40. Satoh, K.; Nigro, P.; Berk, B.C. Oxidative stress and vascular smooth muscle cell growth: A mechanistic linkage by cyclophilin A. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 2010, 12, 675–682.
  41. Pisoschi, A.M.; Pop, A. The role of antioxidants in the chemistry of oxidative stress: A review. J. Med. Chem. 2015, 97, 55–74.
  42. Cui, G.; Li, L.; Xu, W.; Wang, M.; Jiao, D.; Yao, B.; Xu, K.; Chen, Y.; Yang, S.; Long, M. Astaxanthin Protects Ochratoxin A-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in the Heart via the Nrf2 Pathway. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2020, 2020, 7639109.
  43. Xue, Y.; Sun, C.; Hao, Q.; Cheng, J. Astaxanthin ameliorates cardiomyocyte apoptosis after coronary microembolization by inhibiting oxidative stress via Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in rats. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol. 2019, 392, 341–348
  44. Kishimoto, Y.; Tani, M.; Uto-Kondo, H.; Iizuka, M.; Saita, E.; Sone, H.; Kurata, H.; Kondo, K. Astaxanthin suppresses scavenger receptor expression and matrix metalloproteinase activity in macrophages. Eur. J. Nutr. 2010, 49, 119–126.
  45. Lin, Q.; Wang, H.; Lin, J.; Chen, Z.; Chang-Sheng, X.; Huang, D.; Zhang, L.; Liang, J. The protective effect and related mechanisms of astaxanthin on endothelial function in diabetic rats. Chin. J. Hypertens 2015, 23, 530–536.
  46. Nishigaki, I.; Rajendran, P.; Venugopal, R.; Ekambaram, G.; Sakthisekaran, D.; Nishigaki, Y. Cytoprotective role of astaxanthin against glycated protein/iron chelate-induced toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Phytother. Res. 2010, 24, 54–59.
  47. Chan, K.C.; Chen, S.C.; Chen, P.C. Astaxanthin attenuated thrombotic risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients. J. Funct. Food 2019, 53, 22–27.
  48. Uchiyama, K.; Naito, Y.; Hasegawa, G.; Nakamura, N.; Takahashi, J.; Yoshikawa, T. Astaxanthin protects beta-cells against glucose toxicity in diabetic db/db mice. Redox Rep. 2002, 7, 290–293.
  49. Li, Y.-C.; He, Q.-H.; Liu, R.-X.; Zhang, B.; Yang, Z.-X.; Zhou, M. Effects of Haematococcus pluvialis astaxanthin on diabetes mice for decreasing blood glucose and its mechanisms. Sci. Technol. Food Ind. 2016, 37, 355–359.
  50. Chen, Y.; Tang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Du, J.; Wang, Y.; Yu, H.; He, Y. Astaxanthin alleviates gestational diabetes mellitus in mice through suppression of oxidative stress. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol. 2020, 393, 2517–2527.
  51. Kohandel, Z.; Farkhondeh, T.; Aschner, M.; Samarghandian, S. Nrf2 a molecular therapeutic target for Astaxanthin. Biomed. Pharmacother 2021, 137, 111374.
  52. Landon, R.; Gueguen, V.; Petite, H.; Letourneur, D.; Pavon-Djavid, G.; Anagnostou, F. Impact of astaxanthin on diabetes pathogenesis and chronic complications. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 357.
  53. Ishiki, M.; Nishida, Y.; Ishibashi, H.;Wada, T.; Fujisaka, S.; Takikawa, A.; Urakaze, M.; Sasaoka, T.; Usui, I.; Tobe, K. Impact of divergent effects of astaxanthin on insulin signaling in L6 cells. Endocrinology 2013, 154, 2600–2612.
  54. Zhuge, F.; Ni, Y.; Wan, C.; Liu, F.; Fu, Z. Anti-diabetic effects of astaxanthin on an STZ-induced diabetic model in rats. Endocr. J. 2020, 68, EJ20-0699.
  55. Haffner, S.M. The metabolic syndrome: Inflammation, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 2006, 97, 3–11.
  56. Taborsky, M.; Linhart, A.; Rosolova, H.; Spinard, J. 2019 ESC Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD. Summary of the document prepared by the Czech Society of Cardiology. Cor. Vasa 2020, 62, 105–138.
  57. Selvin, E.; Marinopoulos, S.; Berkenblit, G.; Rami, T.; Brancati, F.L.; Powe, N.R.; Golden, S.H. Meta-analysis: Glycosylated hemoglobin and cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. Ann. Intern. Med. 2004, 141, 421–431.
  58. Ceriello, A.; Motz, E. Is oxidative stress the pathogenic mechanism underlying insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease? The common soil hypothesis revisited. Arterioscler. Thromb Vasc. Biol. 2004, 24, 816–823.
  59. Heitzer, T.; Schlinzig, T.; Krohn, K.; Meinertz, T.; Münzel, T. Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 2001, 104, 2673–2678.
  60. Fiorello, M.L.; Treweeke, A.T.; Macfarlane, D.P.; Megson, I.L. The impact of glucose exposure on bioenergetics and function in a cultured endothelial cell model and the implications for cardiovascular health in diabetes. Sci. Rep. 2020, 10, 19547.
  61. Thiel, W.H.; Esposito, C.L.; Dickey, D.D.; Dassie, J.P.; Long, M.E.; Adam, J.; Streeter, J.; Schickling, B.; Takapoo, M.; Flenker, K.S.; et al. Vascular smooth muscle cell RNA aptamers for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Mol. Ther. 2015, 23, 27.
  62. Fiorentino, T.V.; Prioletta, A.; Zuo, P.; Folli, F. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and its role in diabetes mellitus related cardiovascular diseases. Curr. Pharm. Des. 2013, 19, 5695–5703.
  63. Riches, K.; Alshanwani, A.R.;Warburton, P.; O’Regan, D.J.; Ball, S.G.;Wood, I.C.; Turner, N.A.; Porter, K.E. Elevated expression levels of miR-143/5 in saphenous vein smooth muscle cells from patients with type 2 diabetes drive persistent changes in phenotype and function. J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 2014, 74, 240–250.
  64. Casella, S.; Bielli, A.; Mauriello, A.; Orlandi, A. Molecular pathways regulating macrovascular pathology and vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype in type 2 diabetes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 24353–24368.
  65. Villeneuve, L.M.; Reddy, M.A.; Lanting, L.L.;Wang, M.; Meng, L.; Natarajan, R. Epigenetic histone H3 lysine 9 methylation in metabolic memory and inflammatory phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells in diabetes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2008, 105, 9047–9052.
  66. Ehses, J.A.; Perren, A.; Eppler, E.; Ribaux, P.; Pospisilik, J.A.; Maor-Cahn, R.; Gueripel, X.; Ellingsgaard, H.; Schneider, M.K.; Biollaz, G. Increased number of islet-associated macrophages in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2007, 56, 2356–2370.
  67. Ghlissi, Z.; Hakim, A.; Sila, A.; Mnif, H.; Zeghal, K.; Rebai, T.; Bougatef, A.; Sahnoun, Z. Evaluation of efficacy of natural astaxanthin and vitamin E in prevention of colistin-induced nephrotoxicity in the rat model. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2014, 37, 960–966.
  68. Sila, A.; Ghlissi, Z.; Kamoun, Z.; Makni, M.; Nasri, M.; Bougatef, A.; Sahnoun, Z. Astaxanthin from shrimp by-products ameliorates nephropathy in diabetic rats. Eur. J. Nutr. 2015, 54, 301–307.
  69. Wu, L.; Sun, Z.; Chen, A.; Guo, X.; Wang, J. Effect of astaxanthin and exercise on antioxidant capacity of human body, blood lactic acid and blood uric acid metabolismEffet de l’astaxanthine et de l’exercice sur la capacité antioxydante, la lactatémie, et le métabolisme de l’acide urique. Sci. Sports 2019, 34, 348–352.
  70. Shokri, M.N.; Tahmasebi, M.; Mohammadi, A.J.; Zakerkish, M.; Mohammadshahi, M. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of astaxanthin supplementation on the expression of miR-146a and miR-126 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Int. J. Clin. Pract. 2021, 75, e14022.
  71. Talbott, S.M.; Hantla, D.; Capelli, B.; Ding, L.; Li, Y.; Artaria, C. Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on psychophysiological heart-brain axis. Dyn. Healthy Subj. 2019, 9, 521–531.
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  81. Yuan, L.; Qu, Y.; Li, Q.; An, T.; Chen, Z.; Chen, Y.; Deng, X.; Bai, D. Protective effect of astaxanthin against La2O3 nanoparticles induced neurotoxicity by activating PI3K/AKT/Nrf-2 signaling in mice. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2020, 144, 111582.
  82. Wu, W.; Wang, X.; Xiang, Q.; Meng, X.; Peng, Y.; Du, N.; Liu, Z.; Sun, Q.; Wanga, C.; Liu, X. Astaxanthin alleviates brain aging in rats by attenuating oxidative stress and increasing BDNF levels. Food Funct. 2014, 5, 158–166.
  83. Yuan, L.; Liang, P.; Qu, Y.; An, T.; Wang, J.; Deng, X.; Bai, L.; Shen, P.; Bai, D. Protective effect of astaxanthin against SnS2 nanoflowers induced testes toxicity by suppressing RIPK1-RIPK3-MLKL signaling in mice. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2020, 145, 111736.
  84. Peng, Y.J.; Lu, J.W.; Liu, F.C.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, H.S.; Ho, Y.J.; Hsieh, T.H.; Wu, C.C.; Wang, C.C. Astaxanthin attenuates joint inflammation induced by monosodium urate crystals. FASEB J. 2020, 34, 11215–11226.
  85. Ozbeyli, D.; Gurler, E.B.; Buzcu, H.; Çilingir-Kaya, Ö.T.; Çam, M.E.; Yüksel, M. Astaxanthin alleviates oxidative damage in acute pancreatitis via direct antioxidant mechanisms. J. Gastroenterol. 2020, 31, 706–712.
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